In 2010, Wales-born lawyer Julia Gillard (b 1961) became Australia’s first female prime minister after she seized the leadership of the Australian Labor Party from Kevin Rudd. Several months later Gillard and her party won the national election and formed a minority government. Her victory over Rudd was the first time an Australian prime minister was removed by their party during their first term in office. It would not be the last, however. Just months before the 2013 election, the Labor caucus, by a 57 to 45 vote, withdrew its support and re-instituted Kevin Rudd.
Throughout her tenure as leader of Australia, Gillard faced explicit sexist personal attacks. Following her loss to Rudd, she reflected on how her gender affected her role as prime minister and her position within her party; “I’ve been a little bit bemused by those colleagues in the newspapers who have admitted that I have suffered more pressure as a result of my gender than other PMs in the past but then concluded it had zero effect on my political position or the political position of the Labor party” (in The Guardian, 26 June 2013)
The assault against Gillard was brutal and graphic. Early in her leadership, Australian broadcaster Alan Jones referred to Gillard as a “lying cow” and a “horrible mouth on legs”. The Liberal opposition leader stood before protest signs against a carbon tax reading “Ditch the Witch” and “Julia: Bob Brown’s Bitch”, with the latter caption reducing her to the sexual toy of a powerful man. At the beginning of June 2013, a fundraising dinner for the opposition Liberal party typified pervasive misogyny. It served what it called “Julia Gillard Kentucky Fried Quail” described as “small breasts, huge thighs and a big red box”. While apologies have been issued, the menu’s degrading, and violent imagery was far from atypical. Gillard has also been excoriated for her failure to confirm to hetero-normative practices, particularly her relationship with live-in partner, Tim Matheison and her public choice not to have children. In 2013 radio host Howard Sattler, who was subsequently fired, demanded Gillard respond to the rumour that Mathieson must be gay, a clear aspersion on the normative femininity and masculinity of the couple. Gillard’s chief political rival, Liberal leader Tony Abbott questioned the ability of a childless woman to make policy on childcare and suggested that should “make an honest woman of herself”. Undermining extends beyond the media and political opposition. One CEO of an Australian agriculture company publicized his commercial equipment as “designed for non-productive old cows. Julia Gillard’s got to watch out”. The misogyny and rejection of women’s right to power and influence readily extended beyond personal attacks. In one interview, when asked about the under-representation of women, Abbot asked “If it is true… that men have more power generally speaking than women, is that a bad thing?
While Gillard was perhaps the western world’s outstanding 21th century example of hostility to women in public life, she has had good company in facing sexist assaults. Recurring preoccupation with Hillary Clinton’s hair and pantsuits made fashion the measure of the woman while dismissals such as the injunction to “iron my shirt” endeavoured to retire that American to the domestic realm. Canada has fared little better as Joanna Everitt and Elisabeth Gidengil confirmed for the 1993 federal election. The new century did not change the message. In 2013, one radio host unrepentantly labeled Ontario NDP leader Andrea Horvak a ‘whore’ for dealing with the minority Liberal government. On the Pacific coast, Premier Christy Clark was criticized for a low cut shirt (a tempest in a c-cup, one commentator called the scandal), while the parliamentary photo of federal NDP MP Rathika Sitsabaiesan was photo-shopped to reduce her cleavage. Such denigration regularly haunts all female candidates for public office. The treatment of women in politics reflects pervasive patriarchal norms that devalue, fail to recognize and aim to eradicate women’s power and capacity to lead. Gillard’s case in particular may be linked to what has been termed the Australian ‘man in crisis’ (Bode).
To the collective applause of feminists in Australia and elsewhere, however, Gillard rejected silence. In October 2012, she famously gave a fifteen-minute speech in the Australian House of Commons condemning the opposition leader on behalf of all women in the nation. “Sexism should always be unacceptable”, Gillard said, demanding that Abbott “think seriously about the role of women in public life and in Australian society because we are entitled to a better standard than this”.
In January 2013, after some two and half years in office, Gillard called a national election for 14 September 2013. Before losing the leadership, she warned voters that a loss for her party would mean women will “once again [be] banished from the centre of Australia’s political life”. By summer, however, polls showed only 30% of respondents casting their primary vote (Australia has an alternative vote electoral system) for Labour and Gillard was doomed to fall before Rudd’s mounting challenge.
Her ouster gives special meaning to Gillard’s publicly expressed worry about pervasive misogny: “I don’t want to see a message like that sent to … young girls,” she said, “I want young girls and women to be able to feel like they are included in public life”. In an press release before she offered her resignation to the Governor General of Australia, however, Gillard offered a rallying cry – “What I am absolutely confident of is it will be easier for the next woman, and the woman after that, and the woman after that, and I’m proud of that.” And she should be – Gillard’s strength and resilience should silence critics who doubt women’s capacity for the top jobs.
You can watch Gillard’s speech here – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihd7ofrwQX0
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