Active in Britain 1896-1918; major non-militant organization; influential members included Millicent Garrett Fawcett, Lady Frances Balfour, and Eva McLaren; focused on public education and pressuring male parliamentarians for woman suffrage as a non-partisan cause.
Sandra Stanley Holton, ‘National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (act. 1896–1918)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. [http://www.oxforddnb.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/view/theme/96378, accessed 20 Nov 2011]
Leslie P. Hume, The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, 1897–1914 (N.Y. Garland, 1982)
E. Crawford, Women’s suffrage movement in Britain and Ireland: a regional survey (NY: Routledge, 2005)
S. S. Holton, Feminism and democracy: women’s suffrage and reform politics in Britain, 1900–1918 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Martin Pugh, The March of the Women: A Revisionist Analysis of the Campaign for Women’s Suffrage, 1866-1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Born 1845 Cheshire, UK; died London, UK, 1921; represented the ‘radical left’ of Britain’s feminist aristocrats; leader in British temperance and suffrage causes and the Women’s Liberal Federation.
David M. Fahey, ‘Howard , Rosalind Frances, countess of Carlisle (1845–1921)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn,
K.D. Reynolds, Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998).
I. Tyrrell, Woman’s World/Woman’s Empire: the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union in international perspective, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1991)